Art of the Interview – Citizen Kane Research and Analysis Project

CC image Citizen Kane Poster by Phil Nelson at Flickr


The goal of this project was to use our knowledge of mise-en-scene, cinematography, editing, audio, narrative, genre and more to create an analysis of a scene of the movie Citizen Kane. After analyzing it, our team of three (screenwriter, cinematographer, editor/audio guy) made a short documentary going into depth in one of the fields. Our team decided to talk about the blocking of the actors, which falls under mise-en-scene, and we analyzed Scene #2 of the film. To do this we made a screenplay telling what we would talk about and what clips from the film we would use. We then shot and recorded the clips we needed for the documentary, and afterwards we edited them and added in clips from the film. Our final product is a short documentary on the blocking of the characters in Scene #2 of Citizen Kane.

The Film

Screenplay/Shot List

As the screenwriter, I wrote the screenplay for the documentary we created. The screenplay is in audio-video format, and includes a plan of the shots we used in the final product. In this sense it also acted as sort of a shot list. Even though we only filmed one shot (which is listed on the screenplay), we also used clips from the movie Citizen Kane, and the times of the clips are listed on the screenplay to make it easier for the editor when she adds them in. Below are screenshots of the screenplay.

Camera Position/Movement

As we were filming we decided to add in another angle (which wasn’t in the screenplay and was just an on-the-spot decision), and we decided that a side angle would add some depth to the documentary. Below are some pictures of the different angles we used.

Reactions to the Final Version

After viewing our video, some of the reactions I received from other screenwriters were:

  1. The dialogue/narration had a really nice flow to it and moved and fit together nicely. – Dawson
  2. Using different camera angles added an aspect of depth that was cool. – Drew
  3. The analyzation of the scene included some “why’s” and “how’s” along with the “what’s” but needed some more. – Jordie

What I Learned and Problems I Solved

By doing this analysis of Citizen Kane, I learned a lot about the filmmaking process. As a screenwriter, I had to work on my writing skills. I learned more about writing a screenplay in the audio-video format and I got much better at that. I also improved in my decision making skills because as the screenwriter I was in a way the director of the project, and I had to decide what clips we used and what we would talk about in the documentary. Lastly, I learned more about how to analyze a scene of a film and what details people pay attention to when they make a movie. Along with learning things, we also had to solve some problems along the way. One of them was the fact that I was too short while filming and the tripod wasn’t able to go any lower, so we stacked six chairs on top of each other and I sat on those to make myself taller.

Resource I Learned From

Editing An Interview


For this project we were each given an unedited thirty minute long video of an interview of James Clarke. We were also given several of James Clarke’s videos to use for B-Roll. Using these resources, we planned out which videos and what parts of each video we wanted to use for our final, two minute-ish long video. (The requirement was three interview questions/segments and three cutaways to three different video assets.) We then cut out the um’s and ah’s, picked out the parts we wanted and added B-Roll, background music and a title using Premiere Pro.

Collating Files and Storyboard

Project Skills Evidence

What I Learned

By doing this project, I learned a lot more about how to find my way around Premiere Pro. I had never used Premiere Pro before this project, so I had to watch and takes notes on a couple video tutorials on editing. This helped a lot on how quickly I could get stuff done, as keyboard shortcuts make all the difference. I learned how to add a title in, how to lower audio levels, what a ripple edit is and how you do it, what a morph cut is and how you insert it, and so many other cool and helpful tools that helped make my final product. A small problem I had to solve while I was editing was when once I accidentally deleted over half my project. I started to freak out and frantically Googled if there was a back button, and luckily I found it and saved my project.

Citizen Kane Analysis


Mise-en-scéne: Analysis

  • 0:00 – Scene begins with Kane playing in the snow because he is the focus of the scene/what adults are talking about, zooms out to view three adults talking about him (adoption); Charlie is in all black to contrast him against his white and grey snowy background
  • 0:19 – Mother is largest in frame because she is the dominant of the conversation, with the two men in the middle ground; the mother and Mr. Thatcher are both in dark black clothes while the father is in white to show the sides of the argument, the father is arguing to keep the child while the mother is signing him away to Mr. Thatcher
  • 0:28 – Kane in background as little kid behind all three adults, gives of vibe of innocence because of small size in shot
  • 0:29 – Father has his hands in his pockets, sign of uncertainty in the character
  • 0:45 – All three characters are angled towards Kane in window in first third (rule of thirds) of the shot because he is the focus of the adults’ conversation
  • 0:45 – Mother and Mr. Thatcher are sitting down as they are on the same side, agree that Kane should leave their current household while the father is standing up and arguing/disagreeing with the other two
  • 1:12 – Moves closer towards the table in a final act to get them to understand; “i’m asking you for the last time”
  • 1:33 – After he finally agrees after being offered money he becomes small in the frame and moves to the background
  • 1:43 – After the mother signs the papers, she walks to the window and suddenly is very small in the frame compared to the other two characters, referencing how defeated she must feel after signing over the rights to her child
  • 1:47 – Cuts to close up of mother looking out upon her son with the father slightly larger than Mr. Thatcher in the background of the mother. She is the dominant of the frame
  • 1:53 – Thatcher steps forward in frame as he asks to meet the child, signifies growing/asserting dominance, important plot point

Sound and Editing: Notes

  • Editing
    • Continuity editing
      • Cut
      • Dissolve
        • Used commonly by George Melies – A Trip To The Moon
      • Parallel action
        • Cutting back to a different story that takes place at the same time
        • “meanwhile, back at the ranch…”
        • Forms understanding and appreciation of both stories
        • Ex. Star Wars
    • Classical cutting
      • Cutting to several different angles/characters/locations to give details to the story
    • Montage editing (pioneered by the Russians)
      • The juxtaposition of images to create new meaning not found in either individual shot by itself
      • “2+2=4”
      • Focus is on edits/movement of pictures
    • Discontinuity editing
      • Meaning through juxtaposition
      • Emphasizes dynamic, often discontinuous relationships between shots
    • Kuleshov Experiment
  • Sound
    • Convey:
      • Space
      • Location
      • Mood
      • Character’s state of mind
      • Meaning and information to the viewer

Sound: Analysis

  • 0:00 – Charlie’s voice is dominant, shouting/playful
  • 0:11 – Charlie’s voice fades into background but remains present to convey location of characters in relation to eachother as his mother and Mr. Thatcher begin to talk, kane’s voice remains as a constant background noise for the rest of the clip until his mother shouts his name
  • 0:20 – Sound of footsteps and creaky wood floors as the adults walk to the table to convey more about the location (old, wooden house)
  • 1:09 – Rustling of papers as the mother signs them
  • 1:45 – The mother opens the window and one can hear the sound of wind go by, referencing the snow storm taking place
  • 1:46 – Close-up of the mother looking outside the window at Kane (offscreen), high pitched, eerie sounding music starts to play in background to intensify the mood, as mother shouts Charlie’s name his shouting in the background stops and there’s a moment of silence
    • Moment of silence, beginning of sad music, action of Mr. Thatcher taking a couple steps forward to become bigger in frame and him asking “don’t you think I’d better meet the boy?” all signifies an important plot point of the story, when Kane is taken away from his home
  • 1:55 – Right after Thatcher asks to see child, pitch of background music drops and signifies the growing/intensifying dread

Editing: Analysis

  • 1:45 – First and only cut of scene, straight/classical cut from backs of three characters to close up of mother with other two in the background to show significance of the emotion in the mother

Cinematography: Notes

  • Key light: illuminates one side of subject and gives shadow to other
    • Low key lighting: high ratio
    • Used for crime dramas, horror films and other more dramatic movies
  • Fill light: fills in shadows on side that is shadowed by key light
    • Low ratio: high key lighting
    • Used for comedies, less dramatic movies/scenes
  • Hard light: comes directly from source
    • Good for scary, serious, tense
  • Soft light: diffused, hits subject from variety of different angles, made by bouncing light of something
    • Used on glamorous stars, romantic situations and happier moments
  • Back light: light is behind subject
    • Abstracts subject
    • Used for scary characters
  • Edge or rim light: makes subject stand out from background
  • Frontal light: light is at same place as camera, leaves features looking flat
  • Halloween light: light shines up from under subject
    • Makes subject look threatening, scary, distorted
    • Like dutch angle of lighting
  • Proxemics=shot distance
  • Shot types molds our viewpoint
  • Close up people: more significant
    • Greatest dramatic impacts
  • Extreme long shot: dominated by background information
    • Any people are usually two small to recognize unless with context
  • Long shot: who what or where shot
  • Establishing shot: who is is scene, where they are in relation to everyone else, where they are, etc
  • Medium long shot: frames subject from knees up
  • Medium shot: waste up
    • Reduces background
    • Conveys interaction between characters
  • Close up: purely subject, no background
    • Punctuates impactful moments
  • Extreme closeup: close up but closer
    • Close up of object gives an object symbolic value, makes audience know that it is important
  • Camera angle: level/height of camera in relation to subject
  • Eye level: very neutral
    • How our eyes see things
  • Low angles: camera is lowered, shooting up at subject
    • Portrays subject as powerful and threatening
    • Portrays someone impressive or heroic or admirable
    • “I look up to ____”
    • Low angle an be use differently according to context
  • High angle: camera is looking down on subject
    • Makes someone look vulnerable or weak
  • Extreme high angle: camera is placed directly above camera
    • Makes audience disoriented
  • Dutch angle: slanted camera angle
    • Makes audience feel unbalanced
  • Tilt: camera pivots vertically up and down on stationary axis
  • Pan: camera stays n one spot but pans over subject left to right
  • Tracking shot: camera moves with subject
  • Crane shot: makes camera unbound from natural bounds
  • Handheld: shaky look
    • Creates sense of realism or documentary vibe
  • Zoom = amateur
    • Looks artificial because relation of background and subject doesn’t move
  • Moving camera: found in movies
    • Looks more realistic and cinematic

Cinematography: Analysis

Camera Angles and Movement
  • 0:05 – Camera track backwards and upwards from Charlie in the snow to reveal his mother and then Mr. Thatcher a couple seconds later
  • 0:14 – Camera is continuing to track backwards at an eye level angle, reveals father, all three characters start to walk backwards towards the table
  • 1:09 – Camera angles upwards to keep father in frame and to show his dominance as he approaches the table in a final plea
  • 1:25 – Camera angles down to the mother signing the adoption papers, father’s upper half is no longer in frame, in a way cuts him out after he finally agrees
  • 1:33 – Camera moves upwards with mother as she stands up, Mr. Thatcher stands up right after he, camera is clearly focused on tracking mother’s movements as she is the dominant of the shot
  • 1:39 – Camera tracks with Mother back to window as she looks/calls to Charlie outside
Shot Types
  • 0:00 – Begins with long shot of Charlie playing in the snow, gives a sense of where he is in relation to the house, and the location of the house (somewhere snowy/wintertime)
  • 0:15 – As camera moves backwards, introduces the three characters inside the house with a medium-long shot; conveys the interactions between the three characters but also gives a small sense of setting and relation to Charlie outside by including the window in the shot
  • 0:29 – After characters sit down, moves to a medium shot of Mr. Thatcher and the mother while the father continues to stand in the frame showing from the knees and up
  • 1:43 – As the mother walks to the window with her back to the camera, she becomes full size in the frame while the other two characters are shot from the mid-thigh and up
  • 1:46 – Cuts to close-up of the mother looking out upon her child, meant to intensify her emotions, Mr. Thatcher is in the background while the father is in the middle ground until Mr. Thatcher moves forward to closer to the middle ground
  • 0:00 – Begins with Charlie filmed with high-key lighting, portrays a happier and more neutral mood, not a lot of shadows
  • 0:17 – Light is comming from almost directly from the left side of the characters (our right side) and is leaving one half of their face in almost complete shadows **meaning?
  • 0:29 – After sitting down at the table the characters are now illuminated in 3-Point lighting and soft light, with not a lot of shadows but still some
  • 1:49 – After cut to close-up, lighting seems very flat, not a lot of shadows

Narrative and Genre: Notes

  • Narrative: the story
  • Narration: the act of telling a story
  • Narrator: who or what tells the story
  • “The narrator delivers the narration that conveys the narrative”
  • In every movie the camera is a narrator
    • Camera narration
  • Some movies use more than one narrator
  • First person narrator: a character in the narrative who typically imparts information in the form of voice-over narration
  • Diegetic: what is in the world of the film
  • Non-diegetic: things that are added in to build on the diegetic stuff, like soundtracks and titles

Narrative and Genre: Analysis

  • Diegetic: Dialogue, setting, etc.
  • Non-diegetic: Background music
  • Narration: Camera narrator (no outside narrator)
  • Genre: Drama

Interview Video

What I Learned

Citizen Kane Research

CC image Citizen Kane (1941, USA) – 01 by Jim at Flickr

The Battle Over Citizen Kane (documentary)

  • about randolph hearst
    • one of the richest men in america
    • “like a god in the newspaper business”
  • made by orson wells
    • worked for tko
  • hearst would make news even if there wasn’t any
    • told one of his reporters to jump overboard on a boat so he could write about how long it took for someone to save them
    • paid a woman to collapse in the middle of the street and wrote an article about how they treated her
  • wells’ career was based on controversy
    • that’s what he thought while making citizen kane
    • ended up hurting him instead of benefiting him
  • orson directed play macbeth
    • composed of mainly black actors
    • none knew how to read shakespeare
    • wells was constantly on their back
    • got them to perform “as if they had been preparing for that show their whole lives”
  • had the ability to create dread in audiences


  • “every melodrama has at least three close calls”
    • makes up stories/twists them so they are appealing
  • newspaper business=incredibly rough
    • competition for papers was so intense they would shoot eachother
    • President McKinley shot because of this
    • would steal or buy eachothers papers out so people would have to buy opposing paper
    • became a joke to the public
    • ran for several more political roles, didn’t even get close
    • was governor but hated it and sucked at it
  • wells began to run a radio station
    • implicated dread even over radio
    • was scaring people
  • hearsts second wife marion was a gold digger
  • made films form merion
  • deeply in love with her, showed it by spending money on her
    • built her a palace
    • constantly featured her in his newspapers
    • she was very comedic but hearse kind of hid her true personality
  • had biggest private zoo in the world
  • palace was half the size of rhode island
  • “the place god would have built if he had the money”
  • hearst started to run out of money
  • stocks dropped but he kept spending money on ridiculous amounts of art and other fancy stuff


  • marion fell in love with hearst eventually
  • “started out as a gold digger”


  • herman mankowitz was one of wells only friends
  • friends with marion
  • had as much contempt for the industry as wells did
  • “a giant who brings ruins to all”


  • hearts found out that movie was about him when he saw copy of script that was annotated by hearst lawyers
  • hearst was a visionary, not a stuck up old man as portrayed in the movie
    • his papers became lower quality
  • luella parsons had a gossip column in the hearst paper
  • another one of his eyes and ears


  • welles had to give a speech to get rko to release the film
  • people started to dig into his personal life
    • reporters, journalists, etc
    • hearst started to suggest welles was a communist
  • fbi opened a file on welles and came to the conclusion that he was a threat to the nation
  • started to destroy welles
  • citezen kane only won one oscar, for best screenplay
    • had 9 nominations total
  • orosen never got control of a major picture again
  • hearsts reputation was ruined by citizen kane
  • film could not be killed no matter how hard hearst tried
  • movie was very ahead of its time
    • almost like the story of kane related more to his life
  • welles became incredibly obese
  • life wasnt what is was before
  • “2% movie making and 98% hustling”

RKO 281 (docudrama)

  • wells works for rko
  • doesn’t get along with hearst at all
    • thinks of him as a hyppocrite
  • wells wants to take him down, take away his power
  • “love on his own terms. those are the only terms anybody has ever known” = tragedy of film
  • name “kane” chosen because it was one syllable and had a good sound to it
  • orosen shot many takes of each shot to get it exactly right
  • makowitz-screenwriter
    • wells cut his name out
    • eventually put his name back on it
  • for one shot they literally tore out the floor to get the camera at the right angle
  • newspaper lady snitched on wells and told hearst after first screening of film
  • hearst’s “eyes and ears” failed him and he didn’t find out about the movie wells had made detailing his life until after it had been made
  • lots of threats towards wells and rko to get them to not release the picture
  • hearst becomes 125 million dollars in debt
  • marion sold her jewelry to help hearst pay back his debt
  • major movie industry owners want to by the movie and then burn it
  • movie ended up being released

Camera Operation and Control

CC Image Canon T3i by skenney2 at Flickr


For this project, our team of four (director, cinematographer, editor, screenwriter) created a short documentary on how to use a Canon T3i camera and set basic filming settings. By doing this project we got to practice filming hands-on and work on learning more about the process of film making.

Terms, Concepts, Notes

  • Ambient Light – the natural light in a scene
  • Aperture Priority – a camera setting that allows the user to control the aperture, leaving the shutter speed to be automatically determined
  • Bokeh – the appearance or “feel” of out-of-focus areas
  • Bulb “B” Setting – a camera setting where the shutter will remain open as long as the release button is depressed
  • Butterfly Lighting – lighting where the main light is placed high, in front of the face, aimed at the center of the nose
  • Complimentary Color – pair of primary/secondary colors opposed to each other on the color wheel
  • Depth of Field – range of distance in a scene which appears focused
  • DSLR – acronym for “digital single lens reflex,” a type of camera
  • EXIF – acronym for “exchangeable image file format,” which is data attached to each image that tells the type of camera, date/time, image format, and camera settings when the picture was taken
  • F-Stop – number representing the aperture of the camera
  • FPS – acronym for “frames per second,” the number of pictures a camera is able to take in one second
  • Golden Hour – time an hour or less before the sun goes down, when the light is more complimentary to skin tones
  • Graininess – when clumps of individual grains are large and irregularly spaced out in the negative or digital image, making the picture appear “grainy”
  • Gray Card – card used to help color correct/balance a camera before taking an image
  • High Key – image mainly made up of evenly lit light tones
  • Hyperfocal Point/Distance – the nearest point to the camera considered acceptably sharp when the lens is focused on infinity
  • ISO – film or digital chip speed/sensitivity designated by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
  • JPEG (JPG) – acronym for “joint photographic experts group,” an image file format standard where the size of the file is reduced by compressing it
  • Kelvin – a temperature scale, here used to measure color temperature of the visible light spectrum
  • Lens Hood – accessory that attaches as a collar to the front of a lens to prevent stray light from striking the surface of the lens, causing flare
  • Lossless – describes file formats which do not result in a loss of data – example: raw file format
  • Lossy – form of image compression when saving image that discards data from it – example: .jpg
  • Low Key – image that is mostly dark, higher contrasted light between the dark and the light
  • Macro Lens – type of lens that can focus extremely closely
  • Megabyte (MB, Mb, Mbyte) – a million bytes
  • Megapixel – a million pixels, used to describe the number of pixels that a digital device’s image sensor has
  • Model Release – contract where a model consents to the use of his/her images by the photographer/a third party
  • Monochrome – image of a single color in differing shades
  • (Electronic) Noise – grainy look in a digital image, usually occurring in shadowy/low-light areas
  • Normal Lens – lens with a focal length approximately equal to the diagonal of the film format or of a digital camera’s image sensor
  • Painting with Light – when a photographer incrementally lights an otherwise darkened scene using a handheld flashlight or other small light source while the shutter remains open during a time exposure
  • Panning – technique involving taking a picture while moving the camera at a relatively slow shutter speed
  • PSD – image type in Adobe PhotoShop for a “work-in-progress,” must be converted to another file type before use
  • Raw Image – digital image format that contains the most info possible from a camera sensor (uncompressed)
  • Reciprocal Rule – rule that states your shutter speed should not be slower than the reciprocal of your effective focal length to avoid blur
  • Reflector – any device used to reflect light on a subject
  • Rembrandt Lighting – portrait lighting technique which casts a triangle shaped shadow on the less illuminated side of the face
  • Resampling – when an image editing program is used to change the image size
  • RGB – acronym for “red, green, blue,” the primary colors of light
  • Rule of Thirds – composition rule that divides the screen into thirds horizontally and vertically to determine placement of important objects in a shot
  • Through-the-Lens (TTL) – refers to both exposure metering of the light passing through the lens/viewing a scene through the same lens that allows light to reach the sensor or the film
  • UV Filter – a clear, neutral filter that absorbs ultraviolet radiation, with no effect on visible colors
  • Vignetting – a fall-off in brightness at the edges of an image, slide, or print
  • White Balance – when the camera adjusts the colors in an image to make the image look more natural based on the objects/areas that are pure white
  • Zoom Lens – a lens in which focal length is variable


  1. Brainstorm ideas for the documentary amongst group vocally
  2. Create a mind map for ideas on paper
  3. Talk about production schedule
  4. Create the shot list on Google Docs
  5. Create the screenplay on Google Docs
  6. Create the storyboard on paper
  7. Scout a filming location
  8. Block shots at location
  9. Take continuity notes
  10. Begin filming documentary
  11. Start editing videos and putting together documentary
  12. Create blog post

Project Skills Evidence

For our project we decided to make it like an old 60’s infomercial. To create the older style we edited the film to be black and white, have old background music and to look grainy and make the quality look older.

What I Learned

After creating this documentary I learned more about the film making process (preproduction, production, post-production) and how to go through each step. I also learned about how to work and film with a T3i Canon and how to set all of the basic settings. As we filmed the documentary, we ran into several problems. The first was time. There were things we wanted to add in to make it look more like an infomercial, but because of our limited time we had to cut some things out that were just “fluff” and only keep the required and necessary parts of the project. Another problem we ran into was continuity. We filmed most of our shots on one day and the rest on the next day. Because our editor was the person we had been filming, we decided to let him stay inside and edit the clips we already had so we could get it done and use a different person to film for the second day. This caused our video to have two different narrators, which disrupted the continuity.

Career Exploration

Creative Commons image Dictionary – career by Flazingo Photos at Flickr

Director of Photography

What is a DoP, or Director of Photography?

  • Creates the visual identity, or look, of the film
  • Works with the Director, camera crew and lighting department
  • Manages all aspects of filming: from ordering and overseeing to recces to reviewing footage

What does a DoP do?

  • Must discover photographic heart of the screenplay
  • Create the desired look using lighting, framing, camera movement, etc.
  • Works with Director to discuss visual style of film
  • Prepare lists of all camera equipment needed
  • On each day of the principal photography they come early with camera crews on set to prepare the equipment
  • During rehearsals Director and DoP block the shots and discuss special camera movements or lighting with crew

What skills are needed?

  • Have good technical knowledge of photo-chemical and digital processes
  • Know about camera equipment
  • Know about lighting techniques and how to achieve them
  • Make decisions quickly
  • Be flexible
  • Be creative
  • Have artistic vision
  • Be detail oriented
  • Be able to give and accept direction
  • Have good communication skills

Are there any qualifications needed?

  • Take a degree in stills photography for knowledge on understanding of composition
  • Drama, art or film degree is good place to start

Where do I start?

  • Start your career in a junior capacity, like as 2nd Assistant Camera to progress through the camera department
  • Go through either camera or lighting department
  • Work on a camera crew to fully learn the on-set hierarchy and traditions of working

More information at:



Listen Smart – Safely Handling the Power of Sound

Creative Commons image Sound by azega at Flickr

Can You Hear This?

Listen Smart – Safely Handling the Power of Sound


  • “sound is the soul of life”
  • listen to it so that it enriches you but doesn’t hurt you
  • above 90 decibels: after 8 hours there is the risk of hearing damage
  • 100 dB: damage after 2 hours
  • rock concert: 110 to 150 dB
  • long term exposure to loud things can really damage your hearing
  • hearing loss doesn’t just effect old people
  • hearing loss can happen in 30 sec or over years
  • irreversible
  • don’t get any hearing cells after they are lost
  • “temporary threshold shift”
  • exposure to intense sound for a short period time can cause damage
  • “ringing in the ears” = sign of losing hearing
  • ringing in your ears can become permanent (for most its temporary)
  • prevention = best option
  • ear plugs = don’t change quality of sound, just how you hear it
  • stay away from direct source ; earbuds, speakers, loud music in car, etc
  • avoid stimulants ; alcohol, etc
  • jet plane at 100ft = 140 dB
  • pain starts to occur at 125 dB
  • between 10% and 20% of high school age students have some hearing loss
  • in the u.s. one out of 12 30-year olds is already hearing impaired
  • more than a third of all hearing loss is attributed noise
  • 28 million americans are hearing impaired and an estimated 500 million experience hearing loss worldwide

3M™ Hearing Conservation Worker Training Video


  • sound is measured in decibels
  • 30 dB = quiet whisper
  • 80 dB = vacuum cleaner
  • 112 dB = power saw
  • 70 dB = no risk of damage
  • 85 dB = hearing is at risk after 8 hrs of exposure
  • 91 dB = hearing is at risk after 2 hrs of exposure
  • 100 dB = hearing is at serious risk after 15 mins
  • 115 dB = damage can occur within one min
  • 140 dB = immediate hearing damage/pain possible
  • also comes with hearing damage:
    • tinnitus = ringing of ears
    • muffled hearing
  • examples of consequences
    • stress
    • fatigue
    • tension
    • irritability
    • anger
    • negativity
    • depression
    • withdrawl
    • high blood pressure
  • steps to help reduce to risk
    • measure the noise
    • control the noise
    • check hearing regularly (monitor worker hearing)
    • wear hearing protection regularly
    • report problems to your supervisor
  • measure workplace noise
  • level may very by:
    • area
    • job function
    • machine or tool being used
    • production schedule
  • steps to reduce the risk
    • reduce noise levels at source
    • use quieter equipment or procedures
    • block the sound path
    • use noise controls as designed
  • a hearing check can detect a problem even before you do For Audio Career Tips


  • Concert Halls and Theaters
    • exposed to high levels of noise . on stage, off stage, in a pit, etc
    • length of exposure is as important as sound level
    • some instruments, like brass, cause damage to those around them
    • others, like piccolo, cause damage to self because its so close to the ear
    • control, reduce and monitor exposure to noise
    • use risers to make sure sound goes over head
    • use drapes, screens and floor coverings

Chart of Sound in the Environment

Image from

My Presentation

Transcendental Awesumitude by dospaz at


Step #1: Summary of Project

I made a slideshow about myself to demonstrate my knowledge on how to make a decent presentation that doesn’t put people to sleep. I learned more about what the human brain pays attention to, listens to, and reacts to, which helped me put together a slideshow that not only teaches people about myself but makes the information stick. If you want to know how to make a presentation that doesn’t suck then keep scrolling!

Step #2: What is Good Presentation?

  •  Identify the core idea of the message
  • “adopt a beginner’s mind”
  • Get away from tech in order to focus on the main idea
  • What’s important? does it support the core? does it help the story or distract?
  • Keep it simple and visual
  • Brainstorming
    • Messy but works
  • Grouping
    • Find themes and identify core
    • “the one thing you really want to say”
    • Never lose track of key message
  • Storyboard
    • Away from computer
    • Map out groups/ideas on paper with visuals
  • Why not just start on the computer?
    • Advantage is you can step back from it, move it around, tape it to the wall, is more real, etc.

When watching the sample presentations, the most common principle found in each was to keep it simple. One word or one picture per slide makes it easier for an audience to keep up, to understand, and to be engaged.  “Make the slideshow lateral, not vertical.”

Making a good presentation is no piece of cake, you have to know what you are doing and do things for a purpose. When making a presentation, one of the key components is to make it interesting. Not many people can honestly say they’d like to watch a 64-slide presentation about a person, but if you make it engaging and memorable then it will hopefully have been worth their time. Presenting things is our way of sharing our knowledge with other people. Without presentations, we wouldn’t be able to learn as much from each other. That is why being a good presenter is a valid skill no matter what your doing, and the better the presenter, the more effectively knowledge is being shared with others.

Step #3: Brainwriting and Brainstorming Ideas

Brainwriting is a good place to start when you need to lay out your ideas. When you brainwrite, you simply make a circle in the middle with your topic and around that jot down every idea and detail about your topic that is relevant. Brainwriting is a tool to put the thoughts we have in our head out on paper, and it is the beginning step of making a presentation.

After doing a brainwrite, the next step is to brainstorm. Brainstorming is an extroverted activity, where you share ideas with the people around you to help you add to your brainwrite. That way you can write down things others thought of but you didn’t, therefore making both you and your peer’s presentations better.

Step #4: Creating the Storyboard

Making a storyboard is basically taking all the ideas you wrote on your brainwrite and putting them in an order that makes sense. To do this you fold your paper into sixteenths to make “slides”, and then you write your ideas in the squares as you would present them. We use the story boarding technique because it lets you organize your ideas in a way you would present it.


Step #5: Gathering and Citing Images

Citing your images is a valid step in creating a presentation, and if you don’t do it correctly then you could break the law. So, to stay away from that, get your pictures from the Creative Commons. Since you always need permission to use copy written material from the creator, we use the Creative Commons because the creators have already given permission to use their work as long as you cite them. (Copy written material is a legal term given to creators for their artistic works.)

Example of citation: Felipe Hanower. Pizza. N.d. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Sep. 2017.

Step #6: Creating the Master Slide

Once you start to make your slideshow, you want to set the master slide first before anything else. The master slide is the formatting to the rest of your slides, so that way all your slides look the same. If your presentation doesn’t look the same, it distracts the audience and they start to only focus on what you messed up on, and not what looks good. Also, when making your slideshow remember to keep it simple, with one to two words per slide, and that high contrast is best, like white letters on a black slide.

Step #7: Building the Slide Show

You finally get to make your slideshow! When building up your slideshow, look off of your storyboard, as it is the basis of your presentation. Also, base your slideshow off of the SUCCESs Model created by the Heath Brothers in their book Made to Stick, Simple, Unexpected, Concrete, Credible, Emotional, stories. If your presentation hits each of those words, then you are on the right track. Then, create all your slides, but instead of adding in pictures put words instead, for example (pic of soccer ball), or something like that on each slide that should have a picture. This way you get the presentation done and you have the foundation and then you can go back in and add what you need to, kind of like adding icing to the cake.

Step #8: Sharing the Slide Show

Once you are ready to share your slideshow with the world, upload it to because it lets anyone view your slideshow whether they have the presentation software or not. This lets you increase your audience while making it convenient for them and yourself.

 Step #9: Preparing to Present/Pitch  

Finally, you have reached the final phase, presenting the presentation. Don’t worry, if you follow a couple easy steps you will be the best presenter your audience has ever seen. First, “for every minute of presentation you need at least 20 minutes of preparation”. Basically, the more you practice with your slideshow, the better it will go. Second, only say what you want the audience to remember. Instead of focusing on saying every detail, focus on getting your core point across. Lastly, have fun with your audience! No one likes a bland, monotone presentation or presenter, so don’t be afraid to spice things up.

Step #10: What I Learned

This presentation has taught me many things that I will always keep in mind. Since presenting is such a valuable skill, the knowledge of how to be a good presenter and make a good presentation will support me for the rest of my life. When making a presentation I learned how to brainwrite, brainstorm and storyboard to help get my ideas going. I then learned how to compose a slideshow so that it is effective and impactful by keeping it simple and sticking to the core ideas. Lastly, I learned how to be a good presenter. The more you practice presenting your slideshow, the better it will flow. All in all, I learned lots doing this project and it will come in handy in my future.

Me as a Movie

Dead Poet’s Society is a fantastic film, and if I were a movie this one best describes me.







The reason I relate to this movie is not as much the characters in the movie, but instead what the movie represents. Dead Poet’s Society is a film full of passion. Passion for poetry and school, passion for what makes us happy (like acting) and passion for other people, whether it’s a friend, a teacher, a family member or a significant other. I also have lots of passion in my life. I have a large passion for soccer, as I have played it almost all of my life. I also have a passion for stories, whether it’s a book, a film or just a story someone has told.







Another reason I relate to this movie is because of the camaraderie present between the boys at the school. They are all very tight-knit and trust each other with all that they have. That is what it feels like to be apart of a team, where everyone is trusting in each others abilities.